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London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a 50-mile (80 km) estuary down to the North Sea and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The City of London, its ancient core and financial center, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains boundaries close to its medieval ones.
London, as one of the world's global cities, exerts a strong influence on its arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, health care, media, tourism, and communications. Its GDP (€801.66 billion in 2017) makes it the biggest urban economy in Europe and one of the major financial centers in the world. In 2019 it had the second-highest number of ultra-high-net-worth individuals in Europe after Paris and the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe after Moscow. With Europe's largest concentration of higher education institutions, it includes Imperial College London in natural and applied sciences, the London School of Economics in social sciences, and the comprehensive University College London. The city is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city in the world. In 2012, London became the first city to host three Summer Olympic Games.
Apart from Big Ben and Buckingham Palace, London is famous for its status as one of the world's greatest cosmopolitan cities, with an incredible array of museums, shops, and restaurants. It's also known for its interesting history in regard to royalty, politics, arts, science, and architecture.